What are words for?

What are words for?

Beginning Greek

Berea fancied himself a budding Bible student. He enjoyed listening to the technicalities of a deep expository sermon. He shared his hopes with his grandfather who, being an avid puzzle builder and Sudoku solver, asked him what he would need to begin this venture.

“Well, I would need a Greek New Testament and grammar book, a notebook and some flash cards for vocabulary words.”

“When you find what you need, just let me know and I will take care of the purchases.”

Berea recalled that he had come across a Greek New Testament in a used book store in town one day whilst perusing for Calvin and Hobbes tomes. Having returned to ensure it remained unsold, he told his grandfather who made good on his word and procured the United Bible Societies text with dictionary. Berea liked this one much more than the one he saw his pastor use whose book only had a paper binding. This one was had a plastic cover which gave him more a sense of nostalgia.

So, where to begin? He first memorized the Greek alphabet and to his amazement he learned that the English word alphabet was a contraction of the first two Greek letters alpha and beta. Word origins tickled his fancy, too. He was always curios about from where idioms and colloquialisms originated. As sometimes was the case when studying other subjects, Berea made himself a mnemonic diddy he thought quite clever:

Alpha, beta, gamma, delta; say that again and I’m gonna belt ya!

Epsilon, zeta, eta, theta; wouldn’t wanna meet Darth Veta!

Iota, kappa, lamda, mu; now you can sing along too!

Nu, xi, omicron, pi; you’re the apple of my eye!

Rho, sigma, tau, upsilon; I don’t know what rhymes with upsilon!

Phi, xi, psi, omega; learn this song and you’ll never be a begga!

Berea often visited one of his church’s members in the local nursing home about his endeavors. On his most recent visit Granny Smith told him of her interest in angels since she was a child and he told her he would make that his first word-study. It seemed to fall nicely in line with his etymological leanings as well. He soon discovered a new word for himself: transliteration. Angel it turns out is not an English word for the Greek aggelos, but simply an adapted phonetic spelling of the Greek into English. The double “gg” in Greek contract to form the sound “ng” rendering ἄγγελος (ahn-ge-loss) into “angel” (eighn-jel). Berea knew his Granny Smith would find this very interesting. (Which she did.)

You say angels, I say messengers

What Berea also found interesting was the conflict of interest he felt was at stake. Transliterating a word from Greek to English only seemed to add one more step to the process of exegesis.

“God bless you.”

“Huh? No, Granny, exegesis is the discipline of establishing what the Bible means by what it says.”

“I don’t understand.”

“Well, what the Bible says and what the Bible means by what it says are not the same thing.”

“Can you give me an example?”

“Sure. While I was studying the word ἄγγελος I looked up a number of verses that contained the word. Remember I told you that the word’s precise meaning is messenger? Well, that is the translation from Greek to English of the word; so, the English word for ἄγγελος is messenger. So, every time the Greek word ἄγγελος is translated, it ought to read messenger. For instance, Mark 1 quotes from the prophet Malachi where the expectation of a new messenger from God originates. When the Greek translates the Hebrew word messenger it uses ἄγγελος.

“That seems pretty straight-forward.”

“Sometimes, yes. But remember I also told you that in places where ἄγγελος is translated angel it is because the messenger is believed to be an actual “angel.” So, we’ve now moved from simple translation to interpretation.

“I don’t get it.”

“Ok. Think about Mary and Joseph’s finding out about Mary’s pregnancy. Who came to them and announced what God was doing?”
“Gabriel the angel.”

“Yes and no. Strictly speaking it was Gabriel the messenger. Instead of translating the Greek and allowing the reader to determine what kind of messenger Gabriel was, the translators interpreted for us what they think the Bible meant by ἄγγελος. Interpreting the Bible means the reader is supposed to determine what the Bible means by messenger, whether it is human or heavenly. In this passage the issue is not very dire. But the effect is that whenever one reads angel he doesn’t readily think of a human messenger, but a spirit being with wings and a halo.”

“So, is there a place where this translation has more weight to it?”
“Yes. There is a section of scripture where I think it is a mistake to translate ἄγγελος

as angel rather than messenger. In the first chapter of Revelation, we read

In his right hand he held seven stars….He placed his right hand on me and said, …the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches…

So, what do you think angels means here?”

“Well, like you said. When I hear the word angel I think of a spirit being.”

“Yes, and unfortunately, I think this is not the meaning of the passage. That’s where I get my turn-of-phrase all translation is interpretation. Instead of translating the word for us and allowing us to determine its meaning, the translators overstep their bounds and with their transliteration interpret for us what they think the word refers to. So, we end up talking about what it means for a church to have its own angel. We end up wondering, further, whether or not this is what it means for present-day churches as well.”

“So what you are saying is that in English from the Greek, the sentence ought to read the seven stars are the messengers of the seven churches? And that from there the reader is supposed to determine who the messengers are?”

“Right. So if our translations read messengers, of whom might you think?”

“Well, if there is a messenger of a church, I guess I would think it would be the one who speaks to the church.”

“Ok. So, you can see that the word can refer either to a human messenger or an “angelic” one and the context ought to lead the reader in the right direction. In this case, what I would like to see it this. ἄγγελος means messenger; that’s not it’s nuance or connotation, that is what it means. I’d like to see a translation where we read much of what the Bible itself says, with the reader being influenced by the context alone and regarding this word; messenger should be the translation in every place.

“And so we are back where we started when you said there is a difference between what the Bible says and what it means by what it says. You are saying that the way translations go, I have been programmed to interpret a passage not by the scriptures alone, but with a little help from my friends.

“Right. I am of the mind that much of what we believe the Bible to mean has been influenced by the translations we use. Now, that’s not to say that our translations are wrong; taking one language into another is a challenge and so there has to be a bit of nuance when choosing this way of speaking over that. I just happen to think that the reader is robbed of spiritual, mental, and biblical exercise when he is told what a passage means by the translation. And sometimes, I think the choice of translating a word or phrase a certain way can be entirely wrong.”

“Like “the angels of the churches?”

“Yes. I think it was a poor choice to transliterate the Greek there. But hold on, I just had an epiphone.”

“Gesundheit!”

“Thanks. No, really. I just thought of another word that I have come across that has given me pause to think. Am I boring you with this? We can stop if you’d like.”

“No. I don’t mind. In fact, I am interested in your next revelation.”

What in the world?

“Funny you should say that. I am fully convinced that translation is important; so much so, that I would say the authors of scripture chose their words intentionally and with great care. What I think this entails is the reality that if an author of scripture could say something one way and he chooses to say it another, then there is a reason for that choice and we need to understand it. So, my next word study involved the word world.

“Oh, I remember Pastor Meyers talking about that word once. He said the Greek word for world is where we get our word for cosmetics. I always found that interesting.”

“I guess the apple doesn’t fall far from the tree, huh? And do you remember what the Greek word was?”

“I believe he said it was kos…something or other. He also said its where we get our word cosmic.

“That’s right. The Greek word is κόσμος and it basically means “harmonious arrangement” but its nuance can refer to the inhabitants of the world. So, what do you think of when you hear or come across that word in the Bible? Like John 3:16, “For God so loved the world…”

“Oh, that’s one of my favorites. Reminds me that God’s salvation is bigger than just me; that God loves everyone.”

“Well, we can discuss that one later, but notice how you are interpreting the word world. How did you interpret it? Did you interpret it literally? As in God loves the physical orb upon which we live? Because if we do that, then all it means is that God loves the ground, water, and molten magma at the earth’s core.”

“Oh! So you want me to see that the Bible says world, but what does that mean?”

“Exactly. So does world mean this physical orb or does it mean the “people” on it? And does that meaning carry over into every other time it is used?”

“Can you think of another place where the Bible uses the word world but does not mean any of the above?”

“I can. Does this sound familiar to you? Do not love the world nor the things of the world?

“Yes, that’s in I John.”

“Right. So let’s put our thinking caps on and ask What do most people think this passage means by world?”

“Well, if I am most people, I have always been taught that it means just, the world, the things of the world that are against God’s ways. Like it says in the next verse, for all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes and the boastful pride of life, is not from the father, but is from the world which is passing away…”

“Well, look who knows so much!”

“So are you going to tell me that world does not mean world there?”

“Yes. I could be wrong but I believe that to be consistent with the whole New Testament’s message, world in that context (and even in John 1) means the apostate nation of Israel.”

“What do you mean by John 1?”

“In John 1 we read this:

In the beginning was the word and the word was with God and the word was God; he was in the beginning with God and nothing came into being that has been… He was in the world and though the world was made through him it did not know him. He came to his own and his own did not receive him.

So, to make a long story short: there is a parallel idea here between world and “his own” so that they are the same reference. You might switch them up if you like: he was among his own and though he made his own they did not know him. He came to the world and the world did not receive him.

“Wow. That totally changes the meaning of the word! Which rocks my world! Ha! Get it?”

“Please don’t do that again, Granny. It’s weird. But yeah. So, here’s a bit more of my point. I believe the whole New Testament is about the end of the Old Covenant with Israel and the beginning of the New Covenant with the church (which is actually another word study I looked into). So, going back to I John, if the world is the apostate world of Judaism, that is the conflict about which John is writing. Most if not all the NT authors are arguing against Judaism and turning to Christianity and that is what John is talking about.”

But that’s only ½ of what I wanted to show you.”

“Oh? What’s the other half?”

“The word world that we looked at is what cosmos means and so I have no quibbles with that translation. But there is another Greek word that is translated world in certain places that ends up making interpretation confusing.”

“You said, ‘In certain places.’ “

“Yes. The word I am talking about is οἰκουμένη and it means “inhabited land.” When Jesus was born, in order to tax his empire, Caesar Augustus took a census of the οἰκουμένη and in my Bible it doesn’t say “world” it says inhabited earth. But in many other places it is translated world. I find this irresponsible and inexplicably unconscionable on the part of the translators because they are imposing their interpretation of the word and not simply translating it. I mean, why do that in Luke 4 but not in Matthew 24? I believe they do not do so because of their commitment to a theological system that has predisposed them to reading the Bible a certain way.”

“And you think I have been taught to read the Bible with the same view point because of how my pastor has taught me?”

“Well, in a way, yes I do.”

“Hmmmm. I am inclined to be persuaded by your argument and I’d like to hear more.”

All translation is interpretation

“Before we do that Granny Smith, let me restate a bit of my point. What I would like to see is this. Translations need to do less interpretation of texts and more straight translation. They need to expose the reader to what the words are, not what they are for. That is our job. They should give us a sentence (the what) without giving us the why (the meaning). Nuance and connotation are a part of interpretation rather than strictly translation. So, I say, give me the word and let me interpret its meaning.”

“So, what is our next stop, Captain Kirk of the Scripture Trekkies?”

“Hmmmmmm. Well, there is a word that I have come across that is not consistently translated in my opinion and the significance of this word is very great. Let me start by saying that in every concordance and lexicon I have consulted—even the dictionary in my Greek NT—the very first definition of the word is the same, but in every translation of the word, the nuance has been given to the reader and in many places it is not consistent. What this means is this. If I were a budding Bible student studying the Greek, I would be led by all the major study helps to conclude that the first meaning of the word is what the word itself means.

“The word in Greek is μέλλω and it is a verb. As far as I can tell its primary meaning is to be about to do something or by implication to intend to do something. So, if I am to stick by my guns and say that the responsibility of the translator is to give the meaning of the word and not its nuanced interpretation, then every time this word occurs…”

“It has to be about to.

“Right.”

“Ok, so? What’s the problem?”

“If I am right, everything we thought we knew about the New Testament is about to change. But let me ask you to assist me here. Let me show you demonstrably what I have found and you tell me what you think. To begin with, let’s say that I only have my UBS text and the Editrice Pontinfico Inistituto Biblico…

“Gesundheit!”

“Oh, you’re funny. So here we go! First is the UBS dictionary:

  1. Pg. 113 of the dictionary under the word μέλλω (following an infinitive)is
      1. Be going to
      2. Be about to
      3. Intend to
      4. Must
      5. Be destined
  2. Second, from the EPIB under List of words occurring more than 60 times in the NewTestament, pg xxxii, μέλλω with an infinitive
      1. Be about to
      2. Be destined to
      3. Intend to remain
      4. stay

Now, since I do not have access to anything else, I do some work on the web and find these lexical helps. First is

  1. Thayer
      1. Be about
      2. On the point of suffering
      3. To intend or have in mind
  2. Strong

to intend to, that is, be about to be, do, or suffer something (of persons or things, especially events; in the sense of purpose, duty, necessity, probability, possibility, or hesitation): – about, after that, be (almost), (that which is, things, + which was for) to come, intend, was to (be), mean, mind, be at the point, (be) ready, + return, shall (begin), (which, that) should (after, afterward, hereafter) tarry, which was for, will, would, be yet.

  1. Louw-Nida

(http://www.laparola.net/greco/parola.php?p=%CE%BC%E1%BD%B3%CE%BB%CE%BB%CF%89)

be about to

Free your mind

“So, what do you think?”

“Well, based on what you’ve said heretofore, I’d say you would want to hear this. A word has one primary meaning and it is that meaning which the translation ought to convey. Once we know what the word means however, we need to interpret it within the context of the passage. So, for instance: what does world in John 3:16 mean? What does inhabited earth in Luke 4:5 mean? Right?”

“So far, so good. What I would add is this. A word’s meaning is not necessarily also its nuance or denotation, or to say it another way, interpreting the intended nuance of the author’s intention is not necessarily synonymous with the word’s meaning.

“Ok. So, what’s so special about this word? You said everything would change. I am dying to know what would change.”

“Ok. Let me begin by asking you what you believe the Bible teaches about when Jesus will return.”

“Well, I’ve always been taught that Jesus could come back at any time and that when he does, all of the prophecies about the last judgement and the tribulation and the end of the world will be fulfilled. Does that sound right?”

“It doesn’t have to sound right; I just want to know what you believe about it all.”
“Well, I guess that’s what I believe.”

“Are you ready for this? I used to believe what you just described…”

“Used to? What do you mean?”

“What I mean is I no longer believe Jesus will return at any moment, but that his future return is perhaps 1000s of years in the future. What I mean is I no longer believe that the tribulation is future. What I mean is I no longer believe that what Jesus described as the sun, moon, and stars coming undone has anything whatsoever to do with our future. It has already happened.”

“So, you believe the resurrection has already happened and that Jesus is not coming back?”

“In a way, yes; and, in a way no. Now, I do not have all the answers to this new way of seeing things, but what I do have is just about as wild as if the Matrix were real. Everything is about to change. Freeing your mind from the misguided way of seeing the Bible will take some time and you will very often feel like Neo retching from the stress of understanding that what he thought was real is not.

“Now, most people are hesitant to go where I am going to show you, but I think it’s the right way. Let me now show you a bit more by putting together what we have seen above for you.”

Choosing the red pill or the blue

“The verb μέλλω means “about to” and within the New Testament it is linked with a coming judgement that many people think refers to something that is still future and sometimes that combination also happens with the Greek noun οἰκουμένη. Let me say it this way by quoting from what Luke records in the Acts. When Paul was preaching to the Athenians in the areopagus he said something profound. Let me quote from the New American Standard and then my translation.

“First, because he has fixed a day when he will judge the world in righteousness through a man whom he appointed, having furnished proof to all men by raising him from the dead.

Now mine, because he has fixed a day in which he is about to judge the inhabited earth in righteousness by a man whom he appointed, having furnished proof to all men by raising him from the dead. What is the difference between the two translations?”

“Well, the first one seems to imply what I believe will happen at the end of time and the second one, yours, seems to imply that the judgement is sooner, but I’m not sure what to understand by inhabited earth because it could still mean the whole world. But that’s not what you believe?”

“No, that’s not what I believe and it would take a really long time to show you why that is, but let me just say this. I believe οἰκουμένη is best understood within the first century’s context and that it ought to be interpreted as empire or that inhabited earth is meant to be understood that way because of its use in Luke 4 when Caesar Augustus taxed his οἰκουμένη. Remember, Luke could have used cosmos, but he didn’t. He chose a different word for a reason.”

“But what does it mean that God is about to judge the οἰκουμένη?”

“Remember that I said that it would take a long time to explain that? Let me say that the Old Testament is full of passages wherein God judges all the nations based upon their relationship to Israel—how they treated God’s people. The term οἰκουμένη has to be interpreted theologically and theologically this term refers to the system of government established by God during the exile. It is in the book of Daniel where God introduces a new world to his people—a world wherein they are under the rule of the nations. But it is a world wherein God’s people are housed much like they were when the temple was intact.”

“I am not following you.”

“Ok. Remember Nebuchadnezzar’s dream of the statue?”

“Yes. Each portion of the statue referred to a different period of time when other nations would be in power, right?”

“Right. But how do you interpret what the Bible says about the parts of the statue? What does each element mean?”

“Hmmmmm. You are really trying my retention of the sermons I have heard about this, but from what I can recall I think that each element represents the quality of each government. One was gold; another was silver; another bronze and the other terracotta. I was always told that each was different because each is of a different value, so it moves from the best to the least. Am I right?”

“Yes. I was taught that as well.”

“But you don’t believe that anymore?”

“No. It seems best to me to be as theologically consistent as possible, so that the Bible uses symbols consistently leading the reader to understand one passage based on another.”

“Ok. I follow you.”

“So, can you think of anywhere in the Bible where we read about gold, silver, and bronze?

“Well, the only place I can recall that combination is in the tabernacle and temple.”

“Exactamundo! That is exactly where I think we ought to go when interpreting this dream. So, what now?”

“I’m not sure. Can’t you just say what you think and I’ll go from there?”

“Sure. The tabernacle was God’s presence with his people. It was proof that God dwelt in the midst of his people. The statue was made up of the same materials and each material represented a different kingdom in the future. God was telling his people that the new tabernacle would be the ruling nations. God would still be with his people even though they were out of the land and his presence would be with them even though they were under the control of Gentile nations. See, most people think that Rome was the enemy of Israel in the New Testament.”

“But it wasn’t?”

“No. Rome wasn ‘t the enemy. Israel was her own worst enemy because she was bucking the system that God established back in Daniel. And Jeremiah rebuked the leaders of Israel warning them to pray for the peace of the nation which ruled over them. He didn’t want them to rebel against Rome. Think about this. Whom did Rome persecute in the Acts?”

“Well, I want to say the church, but I can guess you would say no.”

“Right. Consistently in Acts we see Rome punishing the Jews who rejected Paul’s message. You see, God set up a newer version of the Abrahamic covenant in the exile. The Gospel message in the exile was: those who bless you I will bless; those who curse you I will curse. There were consecutive emperors who blessed Israel and there were some who cursed them. I believe Nebuchadnezzar, Darius (who was Esther’s husband, Ahasuerus, the Great King), and Cyrus were converted Gentiles. As long as the ruling empire favoured God’s people, all was well. When the new covenant comes along, so does a new people.”

“So, you don’t believe the Jews are God’s people any longer?”

“No, I don’t. And neither does the Bible.”

“But what about what Paul says when he says that someday the Jews will become jealous to the point of turning to the gospel?”

“I believe that already happened. When Paul wrote that he was still in the infant stage of the church and through his ministry he was looking to make the Jews jealous now to seek God through Jesus alone. Today’s Jews are nowhere near what the Jews were in the decades following Jesus and they are not jealous of us as they were in the beginning of the church. In fact, there is no longer Jew or Gentile. The new man is christian. There is too much at stake not to say this. To assert that the Jews will one day again be the people of God is to deny Christ himself. To assert that someday in the future the Jews will once again be God’s people is to completely deny the whole New Testament. Just read (at least) Hebrews, Galatians, and Revelation.”

“But isn’t Revelation about the end of the world?”

“It is, but not the end of the world as we know it. Consistently in Revelation, οἰκουμένη is used in relation to the war which the kings wage against the church (Rev. 16:14). And in the beginning of the Revelation, Jesus warns one of the churches about an about to coming hour of testing upon the whole οἰκουμένη. “

“So that leads me to a question.”

“Ok?”

“What does that mean? What does the οἰκουμένη have to do with being tested or judged?”

“Ah. Very good, young Skywalker. Ask the right question you have. Remember that the theology of the Bible is just as (if not more) important as the translation. The New Testament is not only about Jesus putting an end to the sacrificial system and dying for the sins of man. It’s also about the end of the οἰκουμένη and the end of old heavens and the earth. It’s also, then, about the new heavens and earth one in which there is a new world order with a new emperor on the throne. The old οἰκουμένη is judged by her response to the gospel (Matthew 25) and this is what Paul and Silas were singing in prison and what Paul preaches to Felix and to Festus and Agrippa .”

“But aren’t the new heavens and earth about eternity?”

“Most people think so, but the immediate reference is to the new world Jesus institutes. The original term “new heavens and earth” (which John uses in Revelation) is a reference to Israel from Isaiah 65, not a literal new heavens and earth. Here’s the passage the way I see it.

“For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; And the former things will not be remembered or come to mind. “But be glad and rejoice forever in what I create; For behold, I create Jerusalem for rejoicing And her people for gladness.

There are many parallelisms in this passage. Note their symmetry here:

A Because the former troubles are forgotten, and because they are hidden from My sight!

B “For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth;

A’ And the former things will not be remembered or come to mind.

C “But be glad and rejoice forever in what I create;

B’ For behold, I create Jerusalem

C’ for rejoicing and her people for gladness.

Note primarily, what God creates: he says he creates a new heavens and earth. Is this literal? No. Why should the reader draw this conclusion? He must draw another conclusion based on the clear parallel God himself makes: God calls the city Jerusalem the new heavens and earth. The parallel is clear and not forced. God says, “I create new heavens and a new earth…be glad and rejoice I create Jerusalem for rejoicing…and gladness.” Israel is to expect a make over, a renewal by the grace of God. God’s calling Jerusalem “new heavens and earth” is a politically symbolic reference going all the way back to Genesis 1, 7-9, and 37.

This hermeneutic must not be rejected out of hand and yet that is what many indeed do. Many reject this interpretation for fear of its precluding a more full future fulfillment when Jesus returns at the close of the final festal age. But this need not be the case. It need not be the case that one reject this symbolic interpretation for fear that it means losing a future fulfillment at some remote time.

As was stated above, some reject this hermeneutic because of its application to the words of Jesus in the Revelation when he talks about the new heavens and earth in the latter part of the vision (ch.21). It is my presupposition that the Revelation is the judgement of God against Israel as a body politic for her adultery against her covenant Master and murder his Messiah (Psalm 2). Adultery because she rejected the new Bridegroom (Matt. 25) and murder because she persecuted the new Bride (Matt. 23-25; Acts; Hebrews; the Epistles). Further, when Jesus talks about the new heavens and earth, he is talking about a new body politic (Matt.28.18)—a new bride, a new city (Rev 21, 22).

Following the structure seen before in Isaiah, note the parallels here in Revelation:

Rev. 20:11

Then I saw a great white throne and Him who sat upon it, from whose presence earth and heaven fled away, and no place was found for them.

Rev. 21:1

Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth passed away, and there is no longer a sea.

The association to make here is connected to Isaiah. Jerusalem is the former heavens and earth which is fleeing from the presence of God and which passes away like an old garment (Psalm 102). The new heavens and earth which are created is seen in the following verses. Note the parallels made between the Bride and the City as they are one and the same. The Bride is the City and were Paul to have written a commentary here he would say and the City is the Body and who is the Body and Bride and City of Christ but his people, the Church, the New Israel.”

Whew! Now, that was a mouthful! You’ve given me enough to chew on for quite a while. And look at the time! It’s going to be a night of fits and starts. I’ll probably dream about this!”

Good night, Granny Smith. I look forward to our next get-together.”

Friendly fire

“So, Berea, how have your studies been going? Still working on our last topic.”

“Yes, but I have run into a bit of a snag.”

“Oh, why is that?”

“Well, I have an acquaintance with whom I have previously talked shop and when I shared with him my findings about μέλλω he was very concerned.”

“What made him so?”

“Well, ultimately he was concerned because there is a certain flavor of preterism that…”

“Preterism?  What’s that?”

“Oh, we haven’t had that talk yet?”

“I don’t believe so.”

“Well, in a nutshell, preterism is the point of view that interprets the New Testament exclusively within its historical context and time. But what ended up happening for me was this: certain passages that everyone think haven’t happened yet, actually have. And reworking the way I read the Bible finds a lot of hiccups along the way because passages that I used to think are yet to happen, already have.

“Mainline evangelical churches do not believe that the book of Revelation is about past events, but future. So, things we associate with Revelation like the beast, false prophet, 666 and the tribulation are all past. That’s actually what the term preter means: past. In addition to this, the key events of the New Testament all coincide.  The resurrection, ascension and current adjudication of Christ are all validated by his prophetic words in Matthew 24 and 25. This has an enormous impact on almost every text in the New Testament because certain events (both historical and theological) are not in the future for you and me because they were exclusively first century events and in order to be honest, they have to be interpreted within that context.”

“Sounds pretty responsible to me.”

“Yes and no. There are goodies and baddies here. The goodies still hold to an historical hope of physical resurrection.  The baddies say the resurrection that the New Testament looks for has already happened.”

“How can they say that?  I thought the resurrection was at the end of time when Jesus returns and makes things right.”

“Yes, that’s the historical view.  But my work with μέλλω is related to this errant view of the resurrection because μέλλω is linked to verses where the resurrection is mentioned.”

“I don’t follow.”

“Remember what μέλλω means?”

“It means about to.”

“Right.  So, if there are verses where μέλλω and the resurrection are side-by-side, what conclusion might you draw?”

“Oh, I see; that the resurrection is about to happen.”

“Right. And that’s a big no-no.”

“Yes, but how do you reconcile the resurrection with μέλλω?  If μέλλω means about to and it is referring to the resurrection, how can that not lead one to conclude what the baddies do?”

“Greek syntax.”

“Gesundheit!”

“Great, we’ve got a running gag. Seriously, Greek syntax is different than English and remember our talk about how difficult translation is, well, Greek syntax is the governing rule for how to best translate the Greek into English.”

“Is this where I have to get out my primer?”

“Do you have one?!”

“No. I was just being spry.”

“Listen, we don’t have to talk about this stuff if it’s too taxing on your time.  Would you like to do something else?”

“Absolutely not.  I enjoy these treatsies [pun on treatises].  Besides, do you have anyone else with whom to discuss this?”

“No. Not really.  My pastor won’t touch this with a 10-foot pole.”

“See?  So let’s do this!”

“Even though my friend demands that μέλλω does not “about to”, my point still stands that all my basic lexical work shows that μέλλω means just that. There is no way to avoid that conclusion.”

“So, how can your friend challenge this evidence?”

“Again, syntax and grammar. μέλλω does mean “about to” but its nuance changes when it is used with different parts of speech. So, for instance, there is a primary lexicon called BAGD for short and it not only defines words, but also acts like a grammar to define words according to their word associations. My friend is challenging my thesis based on what BAGD presents regarding μέλλω. Here we go. First of all, it is interesting to note that BAGD does not define μέλλω nor does it parse it.”

“Parse?”

“Yes. Parsing a verb shows its person, action, and tense. And BAGD doesn’t do this like it usually does with other words–something I find very interestingly peculiar. Anyway, here is what BAGD says about μέλλω:

1.  when it is used with an infinitive following

a.  rarely used with future infinitive: denotes certainty of a future event; that is, will certainly take place or happen

b. aorist infinitive: denotes imminence

i. be on the point, be about to

ii. be destined or inevitable

c. present infinitive: denotes imminence or possibility

i.  be about to, on the point of

ii. will or shall

iii. to have intention or purpose

iv. certainty of an action

2.  when it appears as a participle

translates as future or will come/ to come

 “I am still not sure I can connect the dots you want me to.”

“Okay.  So, everything we just looked at from a reputable lexicon shows that μέλλω is used with other verbs and with different tenses like past, present, and future.”

“Right.”

“So, when μέλλω is used with the past and present it most assuredly should be translated as ‘about to.’ For instance, consider Galatians 3:23 for the use of the aorist or undefined tense (that is, it can be a finished action in any point in time):

Λογίζομαι γὰρ ὅτι οὐκ ἄξια τὰ παθήματα τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ πρὸς τὴν μέλλουσαν δόξαν ἀποκαλυφθῆναι εἰς ἡμᾶς.

 Here we have an example of what I mentioned above regarding preterism.  Here is how the text reads in my Bible,

For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory that is to be revealed to us.

Now, before I was preterist, I interpreted this as still future for all of us because in my theological paradigm, the glory that is to be revealed hadn’t and wouldn’t happen until Jesus came back. But notice how the NAS leaves μέλλω untranslated which makes it basically open-ended as to its fulfillment. But referring to BAGD, we see that the lexical work shows that with an aorist infinitive μέλλω is to be translated ‘about to’ and yet, NAS does not do this. The ramifications for this are paramount.  I mean, think about the difference between what the NAS has above and this,

For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory about to be revealed to us.”

 “Yes, I can see what you mean.  The first meaning is ‘whenever this will happen in the future’ and the other is more imminent.”

“Correct. And that happens all the time.  But think about this, if BAGD shows how to translate μέλλω with an aorist infinitive…”

“Then why didn’t your translation do so?”

“Exactly.  Which leads me to ask, why refer to a lexicon to find out how best to translate when even our translations do what they wish when translating? I mean, if they do not translate μέλλω as ‘about to’ because it would alter a text’s meaning, isn’t that dishonest?”

  TO BE CONTINUEd

 

 

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Why this blog?

I have been asked why it is that I blog on these topics.  I must confess my posts and blogs all stem from my own personal wrestlings with scripture  and my posts reflect what I have come to understand the scriptures principally teach.  My posts represent answering questions on particular topics that I’ve never seen anyone else address in the manner I have.  That is not to say my way is right-er, but to say this is the way I wished it had been explained to me.  Silver and gold have I none, but what I do have that I give you.

PaedoCommunion

The Benefits of Paedocommunion, pt. 1

Take this at face value: communion or the celebration of what Jesus reforms and Paul calls the supper is a ritual of the body of Christ; and as a ritual it is set apart from others as a ritual with a caveat. It is also set apart from other rites in that it is the only ritual which excludes the baptized children of the church. Other rituals wherein baptized children may participate are baptism, prayer, singing, study and being instructed in the weekly worship of the church. It is within this context that this essay is limited. This essay seeks to critique this practice and argue (if not demonstrate) that including all baptized members of Christ’s church in the celebration of the supper is not only for the good of the church, but it is also of her essence.

No other ritual has an overt maledictory warning affixed to it. This does not mean that other biblical and Christian rites do not have consequences for their abuse; rather, the consequences for such abuses are understood by inference. Such is not the case for communion. The Apostle Paul declares that abusing the Lord’s Supper is detrimental to one’s health, both temporal (some are sick) and fatal (some sleep). Whether or not the supper is detrimental in these ways depends upon the participant’s posture during the celebration itself. In his letter to the Corinthians, Paul writes,

Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty concerning the body and blood of the Lord. Let a person examine himself, then, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For anyone who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment on himself. That is why many of you are weak and ill, and some sleep. But if we judged ourselves truly, we would not be judged.  But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned along with the world.

This essay will not seek to exegete the text in its entirety but will assert certain deductions for the reader to consider. Note only this, the author of this essay assumes that Paul’s addressing this particular issue is notably limited to this particular church in its particular historical context. What this means is that Paul’s words are not primarily prescriptive for all of church history but for this first century body. Note well, this does not mean it has no application, only that it’s original context and intent is primarily concerned with the first century zeitgeist.

To begin with, from the text above one can see that Paul declares that there is a wrong and a right way to eat and drink the supper and Paul calls this an unworthy manner. What this is not is this. Eating the supper in an unworthy manner in the context does not mean eating it as an unbeliever. That might happen, but that is not what Paul is dealing with here. It also does not mean eating the supper in ignorance of its significance. Yet, sadly, this is very often how the table is fenced. What this error is can be seen by considering how Paul addresses the Corinthians’ practice in the first century.

Paul addresses his hearers with corrective words saying first of all that their coming together as a church is not in unity but in division. Paul uses sarcasm and irony to make his point when he says that these divisions are necessary in order to prove who is genuine and who is not. One might well think of James’ words to his hearers when he addresses the rich abusing the poor in his letter making the same point. Were James to use sarcasm, he might well say that the rich debasing the poor is necessary and good in order to recognize who is genuine among you. It is sarcasm because it actually is not good to make social distinctions in the body; it is ironic because in actuality their behavior proves the opposite—their victims are the genuine ones.

The first issue Paul deals with then is disunity amongst the members of the body. There is disunity in the Corinthian church because when they come together to celebrate the supper eating is done in seclusion and drinking is done in excess. Both aspects of the supper, eating and drinking, are in view here. In eating, there is to be no isolation from the rest of the body: each goes ahead with his own meal…another goes hungry. In drinking of the cup there is intoxication: another gets drunk. As said before, this essay is a simple presentation of the text, so this will not be a laborious argument. If these are the two primary foci of Paul’s rebuke, let us apply it to today’s church experience in the supper.

To begin with, in today’s celebration of the supper there is hardly enough bread for anyone to get his fill and if anyone were hungry he would go away the same because the portions are miniscule. Secondly, regarding drunkenness in the cup…. Need more be said? 90% of the church uses grape juice and even when churches obey Christ and use wine, the portions are so microscopic no one could get drunk. Briefly, here we encounter an entirely different milieu than the early church. Today’s church is not in the same situation as that of the early.

The second issue Paul addresses is that of committing this principle of disunity. Note his focus. If his focus is on disunity and he addresses participants regarding their violating a principle, what is the remedy? Paul exhorts his hearers to remedy the situation by examining whether or not they are in violation of disunity. This is the needed area of focus by the worshipper. Paul’s words in vv. 27ff are not to be isolated from his previous points. When Paul says, let a man examine himself, of what is the man to examine himself?

Today’s churches apply the text in this way. They call for all believers prior to partaking to examine whether there is any sin of which they are not repentant. They call for believers to examine their hearts to make sure they are not at odds with any other believer. They call for all worshippers to examine whether or not they understand what the supper is all about; that is, they are to examine whether or not they know what the bread and wine signify. These are basically the parameters of the call to examination. But this begs the question as to whether or not this is to what Paul was referring. Not only this, but in churches where confession is a part of the liturgy these violations are dealt with early in the service. When it comes time for the supper, all sins are already confessed and repented of. Who needs to examine himself again?

Since these churches believe that this is what Paul was referring to, it is the responsibility of each believer to ensure that he is not violating Paul’s warning and is able to examine himself accordingly. Taken this way, then, these churches seek to “help” others not violate Paul by determining who is able or not able to examine and discern. Taken this way, these churches esteem young children as powerless to apply Paul’s words. Since children cannot adequately examine themselves, they are not to participate. And since Paul so sternly warns and the consequences are so dire, the leaders of the church must guard against and provide protection for those who might violate this mandate (notice Paul never mandates this).

This effort is thoughtful and it is very important to help others keep from sinning, but regarding this issue, it is a non-sequitor. That is, it does not follow that children are to be kept from participating in the supper because more than likely they are not mature enough to apply Paul’s words as the elders understand them to be. It does not follow precisely because of that which Paul is concerned. Children ought not to be barred from the table until they are able to examine themselves and discern the body (or bread and the wine as they take it) because that is not what Paul is worried about. What Paul is concerned with in this text is social distortion; what Paul is concerned with here is active prejudice; what Paul is worried about is excluding those who belong. In a simple twist of irony, these avid men are actually making divisions among the body that Christ would oppose. One might argue that were paedocommunion the issue of Corinth, Paul would say that they are not discerning the body rightly or that they are guilty of the body and blood.

This essay will assert that Paul does not have exclusion of children in view here unless they are in danger of violating the principle of disunity. Said another way, the discernment Paul requires is simply the opposite of what Peter was doing when he refused to eat with Gentiles. He was not discerning the body rightly. When Paul calls for the examiner to discern the body, he is not expecting the participant to explain the difference between the Roman Catholic, Reformed, Lutheran, and modern evangelical view of the supper. While this might be an application of what Paul was saying, it was not his primary concern. Paul moves fast and furious as he speaks of bread, wine, body, and blood. This sacrificial language is in reference to the elements of the meal and are the basis for unity in the body.

In the passage in view, when Paul wants to refer to the bread and the wine he does so by their nomenclature: bread and wine. When Paul calls for the man to discern, he calls for him to discern the body. This essay’s position is that the body with which Paul is concerned follows from his previous argument of making distinctions and divisions in the church body. What this means is that the positive side of the supper is unity: Jew and Gentile are united; rich and poor are united; old and young are united. The bread is from multiple grains and the wine from multiple grapes but there is one loaf. To divide any of these groups is to ask for judgement.

In conclusion, this essay argues that children are not in the interest of Paul. There is no way to bring a charge of disunity and division against children in the church unless they are doing as they see and if that is the case, don’t fall asleep!

PaedoFaith

Every child born to baptized members of a Christian church is bound to be baptized by order of covenant structures. There is so much theology behind why Christians do what they do that very often the ins-and-outs are not always thought through. That is, Christians very often do things for the right reasons without exactly knowing why. Conversely, many Christian parents fail to do certain things for the same reason: they know not what they “do not” do. Christians who do not baptize their children are in disobedience to their covenant King. But this negligence is no more a gross rebellion than Christian churches that exclude children from communion requiring first that they have a conversion experience.

Conversion for non-covenant members is not the same as that of covenant children; nor is it necessary to require the same of covenant children. In fact, it is antithetical to the nature of the covenant. Christian children of the covenant are only made to be such by baptism. It is not so that natural birth makes a child of the covenant; baptism and baptism alone does this. This has important implications for gross misunderstandings about the sign. First and foremost, what happens to a child born to Christian parents who dies in infancy or before faith can be lived? The Bible doesn’t answer this question, but everyone (including the Baptist) expects God to be merciful and save the child. But this has nothing to do with the sign in and of itself. One might think of Paul’s argument in Romans 4 about Abraham’s being the father of Jew and Gentile faith: one has the sign and the other doesn’t but both are saved. The sign of baptism (precisely like the sign of circumcision) is for entrance into the covenant as an ordained priest for Kingdom service.

Baptism is not salvific in the sense that 95% of Christianity intimates. Baptism is initiation into the covenant and that is all it is (now, to be sure, there are benefits to being a member). Baptism means what it means and its meaning is the same for the infant as it is for the adult. Whatever baptism means for a newly converted unbeliever, it means exactly the same for the baby of Christian parents. Baptism, then, is a new creation ordinance for Paul tells us that anyone who is in Christ is a new creation and baptism is entrance into that new world order. Faith is the only thing that saves, but baptism is the only way into covenant. Salvation is covenantal in nature and only intends to communicate salvation when the subject of baptism lives in accordance with and by faith. This does not exclude infants who cannot exhibit faith as an adult can for baptism is never essentially a man’s expression of faith in God; but rather and ultimately, it is the very act and word of God toward the subject receiving the sacrament. There are differences in the subjects, yes, but there is absolutely no difference in the message to either subject.

The message of the Gospel communicated in full to the subject is the very word of God depicted in the act of baptism and this message is two-fold; on the one hand, it is benediction while on the other hand it is malediction. Baptism holds out for the subject both the hope of resurrection and the threat of no resurrection. The determining factor for the outcome is faith. Will the subject live by faith or not? The call to Christian parents is to raise their children in the fear and admonition of the Lord. And yet, this discipleship is done with duplicity regardless of whether or not it is intentional. To be sure, it is not intentional. Nonetheless, it is done in duplicity when children are raised to believe and live by faith and yet are required to have a conversion experience like a pagan. Again, we have said it above in one way but we will say it in a new and startling way here: the conversion of a child happens when he is baptized.

New birth and its various synonyms are clearly declared by Jesus to depend upon two things from God: water and the Spirit. Baptism is not man’s word to God but God’s word to man.

Right now counts 4ever

The Benefits of Believing the Bible

Or

How Postmillennialism will change your life

Why believe something if it has no impact on one’s life? Everything a person believes plays some role in how he lives, moves and has his being. Is God sovereign? That has its impact. Is Jesus reigning king over the nations right now, not just the church? Is the kingdom of God lived out by “merely” redeeming culture or is it actually built and grown by WorldWideJesusDomination (WWJD)?

Premillennialism is escapist and ineffectual in its eschatology. If Jesus can come back at any time (whether or not one assents to this conclusion), there becomes no reason to invest in redeeming culture in any sense of the word. Of course, this all presupposes that redeeming the culture remotely is even a Christian’s responsibility. A PreM worldview is not a “this-world” perspective because it sees the salvation of a person’s soul and escaping hell as pre-eminent. In this eschatology Jesus is only King over the church and practically speaking has no role to play, per se, in the governing of the nations.

Premillennialism and Amillennialism are bedfellows in these senses. They believe Jesus presently is King only over the church; and they allow for Christians to participate in “secular” callings of politics or art if that is what one feels led by the Lord to do. But this is just an option and not an obligation. Amillenialism is a step out from the PreM position in that it sees the calling of the Christian to make an impact on culture and not merely “go to heaven” when he dies. However, the role of redeeming culture in this worldview is still only an aspect of evangelism and only has an impetus on those who “feel led by the Lord” to be evangelists.

Post-millennialism offers a more robust view of Jesus’ kingship and call to the world.

PreM AMill Preterist/ PostM
PreterismAD 70 means nothing. Jesus’ words in Matt 24 are still future and the rest of the NT’s language of judgement is exclusively final judgement.

Kingdom view:

Jews have a future hope of restoration as a nation

Spiritual only.

Entirely future.

Jesus has no rule over the nations in any fashion.

PreterismAD 70 happened and there are NT passages that relate to it, but for the most part all passages on judgement are final judgement references.

Kingdom view:

Jews [might] have a future hope of restoration as a nation

Spiritual only.

Entirely future.

Jesus rules over the nations as much as he rules over the atoms and stars. That is, he is sovereign and in control of all things.

PreterismAD 70 not only happened but is what the whole NT is about beginning with Matt.1 and ending Rev22. Jesus came to receive the kingdom from God and establish and promote his reign over all the nations (see Psalm 2 as a foundation for how Matt 28.19 is carried out). It is the calling of all Christians to proclaim that rule and reign wherever they find themselves. Salvation from hell is a derivative benefit but not the focus. Redemption of the whole life is the focus. Redeeming culture is not just a good idea and an option, but it is the very way the kingdom grows and conquers the world.

It’s not just about how one maintains his family or work or play. It is about announcing the rule and reign of Christ even over the lives of his neighbors and calling them to willingly serve that Kingdom and King. It looks like this.

Your life ultimately counts for nothing without Christ. He is the King of kings and Lord of lords right here, right now and your posture toward him determines whether or not you are his enemy or his subject. Read Psalm 2 and declare which you are. Are you a person who rages against the reign of the King or do you take refuge in him?”
That’s it. That kind of calling is right-here-right-now-worldly. The afterlife is a derivative (try to find even one verse in the NT where the focus is on going to heaven when one dies). Notice how the NT is NEVER concerned with dying and going to heaven. It’s exclusively ABOUT living within the realm of life under Christ and being raised to a new life in the resurrection of the dead.

Regardless of whether or not God will annihilate the wicked(!) or consign them to hell, he calls you to live your life under his Law for his glory, your good and the good of others.

So how does this change one’s life? How is it beneficial to believe the Bible? Without defending this premise: everything one believes affects how one lives. Postmillennialism is a right-here, right-now kind of religion—a “right now counts forever,” to quote a man. Postmillennialism is more of the gospel than the other views and as everyone in the church will assert, the gospel changes lives.

A work in progress

Heaven: the destination that many people look forward to when they die. The question to ask is Was heaven always the destination for man? For many people heaven is just that and it seems that earth is just a conduit to a truer reality. A man’s life is lived on earth and then when he dies, he continues to exist without a body; and if he is a Christian, he is awaiting the resurrection. Regardless, after the resurrection, he is still destined to remain in heaven. This view of life and thereafter, however, assumes certain truths that will be examined here.

In a particular vein of theology in Christianity, we are in the age of the church awaiting a future age of the restoration of God’s plan with the nation of Israel. This hiatus according to some is unnatural at best and incorrect at worst and it demonstrates God’s altering his direction when the actions of men intervene. This is not to say that man’s actions overrule God but that in God’s kindness he allows men to make choices and those choices effect the future. In the system of theology mentioned above, Israel during Jesus’ time chose to reject him and thereby redirected God’s plan for the future. What we have called the age of the church was not originally in God’s plan but has now come into effect because God’s allows men to make choices.

Had Israel not crucified the promised Messiah, what would have happened? What would the first century have looked like? Would Isaiah’s hopeful prophecy been inaugurated? What would the following millennia looked like? Where would we be today? Would the swords turned into plowshares still exist? Would there be perpetual peace on earth? Alas, the choices of men: intervening historical contingencies.

We have laid the groundwork now to consider what role heaven placed in the original plan of God for man. If death is the result of man’s free action to obey or disobey God and if God’s original intent was that man would obey and live and not die…. Do you feel the weightiness of the query? Is it not a question worth asking?

Had man not chosen death over life, and were death not a natural course of life, what would history have looked like? Would Adam and Noah still be alive? Would over-population actually be something about which to worry? Or would man have translated from this life on earth to an heavenly one? But even to assert that last musing, assumes translation at all. Why ask the question? It is asked because we are told that there was a man who did not die, but was taken by God.

Enoch, we are told, walked with God and was not for God took him and this after a lengthy treatise on the sin of all men leading to death in Genesis 5. Every man prior to Enoch dies and death is the result of sin, but Enoch doesn’t die. It seems we can say that he was translated from earth to heaven. But this merely begs the question again—do men go to heaven when they die? When Abel was slain by his brother, was he immediately in the presence of God only awaiting the resurrection of his body in the remote future? Why was Enoch taken? Where was he taken? Is his being taken a model for us to consider when we ask about what reality lies ahead regarding death and thereafter?

What if heaven were actually the destination for all men as glorified men? What if earth was truly a place of maturity where man is born, grows wise and then when appropriately wisened, he is taken off the scene in an Enoch-like translation? What if heaven really will be where we spend eternity? We are back to the beginning; back to where most people are in their thinking but do not really understand why they are correct.

to be continued…

Flotsam and jetsam

Who can name earth shattering changes in the way people looked at the world when what was thought to be true was shown to be mistaken?

This is gonna be like that for some of you. If what we look at tonight is real, then much of what you know about your Bible is going to change.

“Say what you like,” we shall be told, “the apocalyptic beliefs of the first Christians have been proved to be false. It is clear from the New Testament that they all expected the Second Coming in their own lifetime. And, worse still, they had a reason, and one which you will find very embarrassing. Their Master had told them so. He shared, and indeed created, their delusion. He said in so many words, ‘this generation shall not pass till all these things be done.’ And he was wrong. He clearly knew no more about the end of the world than anyone else.”

It is certainly the most embarrassing verse in the Bible.

C.S. Lewis, The World’s Last Night: And Other Essays, p.97

A pagan wrote an essay called Why I am not a Christian agrees with Lewis and says that the main reason he is not a Christian is b/c Jesus was wrong.

Jesus was either wrong or he was not. Jesus prophesied the end of the world within the lifetime of his apostles and it either happened or he is a false teacher. It will not do for us to make his words timeless by saying that he predicted the end of the world and since the world is still here, it must still be future. No, Jesus clearly declared that what he was talking about was only 40 years away.

DISCLAIMER:

Pay as much attention to what I say as to what I do not say. If I did not say X, then don’t say I did. Something I say might elicit a question or conclusion in your mind, but if I do not say it then I didn’t say it. And of course you may ask as many questions as you like.

Do you know God’s favourite game? Hide-and-seek. He loves to hide things and watch us look for them, knowing that in the looking, we are becoming more and more wise. Proverbs 25:2

In what languages is the Bible written? Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and SYMBOLISH.

How much of the Bible is applicable to us today? Do you know why this is the case?

Is Genesis relevant? Numbers? Daniel?

The relevance of the Bible is not due to the fact that it predicts the future and if the future is still future it is relevant. So, if there is nothing future for us, does this remove the relevance?

Prophecy and covenant theology are two peas in a pod: the one flows out of the other and both are intended to shape and direct history, not even merely “predict” it.

Do you know why not everyone ought to be a SS teacher? B/c not everyone knows enough to be safe; everyone knows just enough to be dangerous.

I remember as a child thinking and having it repeated by some other child: If Adam and Eve hadn’t sinned, would we all still be naked…giggle, snort, guffaw? Depending on how one answers that question will determine whether or not that one ought to be a teacher (now, this is a bit overstated, but nonetheless, teachers ought to have more a foundation off from which to jump). One might well guess the next childish question: will we all be naked in heaven? Or, why were Adam and Eve naked? What are we supposed to take from that? The Bible doesn’t have a running commentary to explain everything it says. But there is an answer and it isn’t immediately evident from the story itself; the answer comes from the greater story of which we have only scratched the surface.

Let’s start with a little pop quiz:

Are things either true or false?

Can you know one thing for sure to be more true than another?

Did God create the world or was it the BB?

Did Noah take two of every animal on the ark?

Was Moses put into the river Nile?

Did Jesus rise from the dead?

Is God trinity? Must he be? Can he not be?

Is Jesus God and man?

Does church have to be on a Sunday?

Is Calvinism or Arminianism correct?

Are infants to be baptized or not?

Is communion supposed to be wine or not?

Does God still have a plan for Israel or not?

Is Jesus King of the Church or of the nations?

If what I say next is right, then it is something that must needs affect our reading of the NT. It might not make sense at first, but when it is considered and accepted…everything will change.

What is the single most important event in the [first century] world? Note I did not ask what was the single most event in the NT. The single most important event in the first century was the vindication of Jesus in the destruction of Jerusalem. Why do I say that? I say it b/c as prophet, Jesus utters a promise that either proves he is a true messenger from God or not. If Jerusalem did not Fall, Jesus is not true. It is b/c the words of Jesus concerning Jerusalem in his Olivet discourse were the words of a messenger of the covenant: a covenant lawsuit wherein the husband lays accusation against his wife and calls her to task for her harlotry. What is the difference between a harlot and a whore? The first one is married and the second one is not. Terms are important and hold great weight. Israel is a harlot and she has rejected her husband who took on flesh to woo his bride.

If we believe a thing to be true or false, we will live in a certain way b/c of that belief. What we believe matters, no matter how slight a thing it is. Don’t let anyone tell you that doctrine (that is, anything the Bible teaches about God and man) divides and all you need is Jesus. Whoever tells you that is…

Doctrine doesn’t divide. Angry people divide. People who do not want to think divide. Everything we believe is doctrine: God, man, creation, Jesus, etc. There must be peace when we disagree to be sure, b/c God in his providence has not seen fit to make everyone agree on all points in the Bible; but that does not mean that particular truths in the Bible are both/and; there is no both/and, there is only either/or. Either the entire NT is preparation for Jesus’ coming to Jerusalem in AD 70 to destroy it for killing him and raping his bride or it is not. And if he did return as he promised, what does that mean?

The judgement that Jesus foretold in his Olivet discourse was not only a judgement against Israel but also against the whole of creation in a true biblical sense: the oikumene as well as the bride of Yahweh. The economy is the system of government at the time of the NT which was Rome. This model of the world began with Daniel’s Man of Earthen Metal. The statue in the vision is made of the same material as the tabernacle. What does this require as we consider its meaning? We must ask what the tabernacle was in all its fullness.

Daniel’s prophetic work established a new heavens and earth wherein the gentile nations were set up to be the governing lights over the world or oikumene. This is the world that existed when Jesus came on the scene. Since Daniel the ruling authorities had converted to the faith and were blessing the people of God. As long as this continued, all would be well until God changed the structure by establishing the Son of Man as supreme authority over the world. And this Jesus claimed for himself before his ascension.

Very often the Bible doesn’t explain what it means by what it says b/c it expects the reader already to know what is going on and not have to play catch up.

Symbolism: numbers are symbols, some of which are these. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and derivatives thereof.

A covenant isn’t ever broken per se. It is, rather, enacted and this can either be positive or negative.